Forskningsrapporter i vetenskapliga tidskrifter


Neurofilament light protein as a cerebrospinal fluid marker after whiplash trauma
Olof Bunketorp¹*, Malin Lindh², Fani Pujol-Calderón³, Lars Rosengren², Gudrun Silverbåge Carlsson² and Henrik Zetterberg⁴⁻⁹
Open Journal of Trauma ISSN: 2640-7949, DOI: 10.17352/ojt.000041
Conclusion: Acceleration – deceleration trauma may cause injuries to the central nervous system. It is important to examine the possibility of a brain injury after whiplash trauma. Further studies are recommended to evaluate relationships between serum NFL and the severity of WAD symptoms and pathologic radiological findings. Such studies should be made to validate if an increased NFL concentration could be used as a prognostic tool.


The Long-term Impact of Whiplash Injuries on Patient Symptoms and the Associated
Degenerative Changes Detected Using MRI: A Prospective 20-year Follow-up Study Comparing
Patients with Whiplash-associated Disorders with Asymptomatic Subjects.
Kota Watanabe, Kenshi Daimon, Hirokazu Fujiwara, Yuji Nishiwaki, Eijiro Okada, Kenya Nojiri,
Masahiko Watanabe, Hiroyuki Katoh, Kentaro Shimizu, Hiroko Ishihama, Nobuyuki Fujita,
Daisuke Ichihara, Takashi Tsuji, Masaya Nakamura, Morio Matsumoto
Spine. 2021 Jun 1;46(11):710-716

Anatomic, functional, and radiographic review of the ligaments of the craniocervical junction.
Peter Fiester, Dinesh Rao, Erik Soule, Peaches Orallo, Gazanfar Rahmathulla
Journal of Craniovertebral Junction & Spine. Jan-Mar 2021;12(1):4-9.

How similar are whiplash and mild traumatic brain injury? A systematic review.
C Gil, P Decq
Neuro-Chirurgie. 2021 May;67(3):238-243.


Signs of Intracranial Hypertension, Hypermobility, and Craniocervical Obstructions in Patients With Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome
Björn Bragée¹́′²*, Anastasios Michos², Brandon Drum¹́́̕², Mikael Fahlgren²′³, Robert Szulkin¹ and Bo C. Bertilson¹′²′³
Frontiers in Neurology, 28 August 2020
Conclusions: In this relatively large novel study on symptoms and signs of IH, hypermobility and craniocervical obstructions in patients with ME/CFS we found to have a significant overrepresentation in our cohort compared to the general population. These signs might explain some of the major clinical symptoms and signs of ME/CFS, such as brain fog, fatigue, orthostatic intolerance, PEM, preference for the supine position, widespread pain, CNS neuroinflammation, immunological reactivity, and autoimmunity mechanisms. If our findings are further validated, a paradigm shift in the diagnostic methods and treatments for patients with ME/CFS may occur.

Diagnostic Accuracy of Videofluoroscopy for Symptomatic Cervical Spine Injury Following Whiplash Trauma
Michael D. Freeman¹, *, Evan A. Katz², Scott L. Rosa³, Bryan G. Gatterman⁴, Ellen M. F. Strömmer¹ and Wendy M. Leith¹
Received: 17 February 2020; Accepted: 3 March 2020; Published: 5 March 2020
Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2020 Mar 5;17(5):1693.
Conclusions: Videofluoroscopic examination of the cervical spine provides a high degree of diagnostic accuracy for the identification of vertebral instability in patients with chronic pain stemming from whiplash trauma.

Comment on “Quantitative measures of tissue mechanics to detect hypermobile Ehlers-Danlos syndrome and hypermobility syndrome disorders: a systematic review”.
Grahame, R., Malik, I., Hakim, A., Koby, M., & Henderson Sr., F. (2020).
Clinical Rheumatology, 39, 2481-2482.

Optimizing Alignment Parameters During Craniocervical Stabilization and Fusion: A Technical Note.
Henderson, F.C. Sr, Rosenbaum, R., Narayanan, M., Mackall, J., & Koby, M. (2020).
Cureus, 12(3), e7160.

Atlanto-axial rotary instability (Fielding type 1): characteristic clinical and radiological findings, and treatment outcomes following alignment, fusion, and stabilization.
Henderson, F.C.Sr., Rosenbaum, R., Narayanan, M., Koby, M., Tuchman, K., Rowe, P. C., &
Francomano, C. (2020). Neurosurgical Review

The Neurosurgical Intraoperative Checklist for Surgery of the Craniocervical Junction and Spine.
Henderson, F.C.Sr, Rosenbaum, R., Narayanan, M., Mackall, J., & Korson, C. (2020).
Cureus, 12(4), e7588.


Bragee Bertilson et al. – ME CFS and Intracranial Hypertension
Björn Bragée, Anastasios Michos, Mikael Fahlgren, Brandon Drum, Robert Szulkin, Bo C Bertilson
November 27, 2019
Björn Bragée och Bo C Bertilson med flera publicerade den 27 november 2019 en studie som
visar att 111 (49%) av 229 ME-patienter (jml Kanadakriterierna) lider av hypermobilitet
(överrörlighet). 205 personer fick genomgå MRI-scanning och av dessa var det 112 (55%) som
visade tecken på intrakraniell hypertoni, dvs för högt tryck i huvudet, orsakat av förträngning av

A cluster randomised, double-blind pilot and feasibility trial of an active behavioural physiotherapy intervention for acute whiplash-associated disorder (WAD)II.
Wiangkham, T., Duda, J., Haque, M., Price, J., & Rushton, A. (2019).
PloS One, 14(5), e0215803–.

Cervical medullary syndrome secondary to craniocervical instability and ventral brainstem compression in hereditary hypermobility connective tissue disorders: 5-year follow-up after craniocervical reduction, fusion, and stabilization.
Henderson, F.C.Sr., Francomano, C. A., Koby, M., Tuchman, K., Adcock, J., & Patel, S., (2019).
Neurosurgical review, 42(4), 915–936.
Conclusion: This study supports the hypothesis that craniocervical reduction, stabilization, and
fusion are feasible and associated with clinical improvement in patients in the HCTD population
with Chiari malformation or cerebellar ectopia, kyphotic clivo-axial angle, ventral brainstem
compression, and/or craniocervical instability. The neurological and functional improvements
associated with craniocervical fusion/stabilization appear to be clinically significant and durable.
That said, craniocervical fusion should be considered as a last resort after a reasonable course of
non-operative treatments.

Atlas-Axial Instability: A Clinical Observation Study of Atlas Laterolisthesis in Cervical Trauma Cases after Whiplash accidents by Dynamic Fluoroscopic Examination
Erling Pedersen-Bach, D.C.; James Winberry D.C, (2019)

Shogo Kikuta, Joe Iwanaga, Koichi Watanabe, R Shane Tubbs
Superficial anterior atlanto-occipital ligament: Anatomy of a forgotten structure with
relevance to craniocervical stability.
Journal of Craniovertebral Junction & Spine. Jan-Mar 2019;10(1):42-45.

Anneli Peolsson, Anette Karlsson, Bijar Ghafouri, Tino Ebbers, Maria Engström,
Margaretha Jönsson, Karin Wåhlén, Thobias Romu, Magnus Borga, Eythor Kristjansson,
Hilla Sarig Bahat, Dmitry German, Peter Zsigmond, Gunnel Peterson
Pathophysiology behind prolonged whiplash associated disorders: study protocol for an
experimental study.
BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders. 2019 Feb 2;20(1):51.


The Relationship Between Chronic Pain and Neurocognitive Function: A Systematic Review.
Higgins, D., Martin, A., Baker, D., Vasterling, J., & Risbrough, V. (2018).
The Clinical Journal of Pain, 34(3), 262–275.

Central Sensitization Is Modulated Following Trigger Point Anesthetization in Patients with Chronic Pain from Whiplash Trauma. A Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Crossover Study.
Nystrom, N., & Freeman, M. (2018).
Pain Medicine (Malden, Mass.), 19(1), 124–129.

Exploring patients’ experiences of the whiplash injury-recovery process – a meta-synthesis.
Söderlund, A., Nordgren, L., Sterling, M., & Stålnacke, B. (2018).
Journal of Pain Research, 11, 1263–1271.

Utility of the clivo-axial angle in assessing brainstem deformity: pilot study and literature review.
Henderson, F. C., Sr, Henderson, F. C., Jr, Wilson, W. A., 4th, Mark, A. S., & Koby, M. (2018).
Neurosurgical review, 41(1), 149-163.

A Practicable and Systematic Approach to Medicolegal Causation
Michael D. Freeman, MedDr, PhD, MPH (2018)
Healio, Orthopedics, Vol. 41, No. 2. February 27, 2018

Deformation of dorsal root ganglion due to pressure transients of venous blood and cerebrospinal fluid in the cervical vertebral canal
Hua-DongYao, Mats Y.Svensson, HåkanNilsson (2018)
Science Direct Journal of Biomechanics, Volume 76, 25 July 2018, Pages 16-26

Cervical spine involvement in rheumatoid arthritis. Diagnostics and treatment of instability due to rheumatism
Janssen, I., Shiban, E., Meyer,B. (2018)
Springer Link, Rheumatol. 2018 Dec;77(10):889-895.

Nobuhiro Tanaka, Kivanc Atesok, Kazuyoshi Nakanishi, Naosuke Kamei, Toshio Nakamae,
Shinji Kotaka, Nobuo Adachi
Pathology and Treatment of Traumatic Cervical Spine Syndrome: Whiplash Injury.
Advances in Orthopedics. 2018 Feb 28;2018:4765050.


WAD – Criteria for Evaluation of Causality
Olle Bunketorp (2017)
Peertechz, Published: 14 June, 2017
Final Remarks and Conclusions:
To determine causality can be difficult, even for the skilled. Paradoxical relationships between the crash severity and the injury risk hamper the assessment. No limit can be assessed, below which an injury cannot occur. Diagnostic tools are too crude for minor injuries that may cause symptoms later. Variation of symptoms, depending on valid factors that are rarely taken into account is a rule in WAD patients seeking compensation. Degenerative changes are often given as an explanation for the final condition. In fact, such changes will increase the injury risk, but this is not recognized. Causality should be based on correct analyses. Proof should not be based on studies that deny that WAD is a reality. These circumstances should bring attention to the difficulties that WAD patients face in health care and insurance evaluations. Hopefully, knowledge, understanding, and acceptance will solve the dilemma these victims have experienced since a long time.

WAD – Criteria for evaluation of causality. Open J of Trauma 1(3) 054-063.
Bunketorp O 2017-11-17. Översättning av Bunketorp O (2017)
WAD – Kriterier för bedömning av orsakssamband
Whiplashrelaterade besvär (Engelskans Whiplash-Associated Disorders; WAD) har orsakat frustrerande problem sedan årtionden för personer som skadats i olika typer av olyckor. Vissa omständigheter och missförstånd förklarar denna anomali. De blir ofta tydliga (några som paradoxer) när det gäller skattning av våldets storlek, biomekanik, skadetolerans, diagnostiska metoder, smärtfysiologi, uppföljning av skadade och skadeersättning. Denna artikel avser att beskriva några av dessa problem med särskilt fokus på kausalitet, d.v.s. om en viss skadehändelse kan orsaka besvär eller ej.

Does Transection of the C2 Nerve Roots During C1 Lateral Mass Screw Placement for Atlantoaxial Fixation Result in a Superior Outcome? A Systematic Review of the Literature and Meta-analysis”
Badhiwala, Jetan H. MD∗; Nassiri, Farshad MD∗; Witiw, Christopher D. MD∗; Mansouri, Alireza
MD∗; Almenawer, Saleh A. MD†; Fehlings, Michael G. MD, PhD, FRCS(C)∗,‡. (2017)
Spine: September 15, 2017 – Volume 42 – Issue 18 – p E1067-E1076

Neurological and spinal manifestations of the Ehlers-Danlos syndromes.
Henderson, F.C. Sr., Austin, C., Benzel, E., Bolognese, P., Ellenbogen, R., Francomano, C.A., Ireton, C., Klinge, P., & Koby, M. (2017).
American Journal of Medical,Genetics Part C: Seminars in Medical Genetics. 175(1), 195-211.

Alan Hakim, Inge De Wandele, Chris O’Callaghan, Alan Pocinki, Peter Rowe
Chronic fatigue in Ehlers-Danlos syndrome-Hypermobile type.
American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part C: Seminars in Medical Genetics. 2017


Screw Placement Accuracy and Outcomes Following O-Arm-Navigated Atlantoaxial Fusion: A Feasibility Study.
Smith, J. D., Jack, M. M., Harn, N. R., Bertsch, J. R., & Arnold, P. M. (2016).
Global spine journal, 6(4), 344-349.

Cranio-cervical Instability in Patients with Hypermobility Connective Disorders.
Henderson, F.C.Sr. (2016).
Journal of Spine. 5(2), 1-3.


Smith, F.W. (London), Dworkin, J.S. (Melville, NY)
The Craniocervical Syndrome and MRI.
ISBN: 978-3-318-02696-2
e-ISBN: 978-3-318-02697-9
DOI: 10.1159/isbn.978-3-318-02697-9
Basel, Karger, 2015, pp I-VIII (DOI:10.1159/000365463)

Annaleen Malfliet, Jeroen Kregel, Barbara Cagnie, Mandy Kuipers, Mieke Dolphens, Nathalie
Roussel, Mira Meeus, Lieven Danneels, Wichor M Bramer, Jo Nijs
Lack of evidence for central sensitization in idiopathic, non-traumatic neck pain: a systematic
Pain Physician. May-Jun 2015;18(3):223-36.


Is exercise effective for the management of neck pain and associated disorders or whiplashassociated disorders? A systematic review by the Ontario Protocol for Traffic Injury Management (OPTIMa) Collaboration.
Southerst, D., Nordin, M., Côté, P., Shearer, H., Varatharajan, S., Yu, H., Wong, J., Sutton, D.,
Randhawa, K., van der Velde, G., Mior, S., Carroll, L., Jacobs, C., & Taylor-Vaisey, A. (2014).
Spine Journal, The, 16(12), 1503–1523.

Chronic whiplash-associated disorders.
Otte, A., Garcia, D., Dierckx, R., & Holstege, G. (2014).
The Lancet (British Edition), 384(9951), 1346–1346.

Colloquium on Basilar Impression and Craniovertebral Instability. In co-morbidities that complicate the treatment and outcome of Chiari Malformation.
Consensus Statement. (2014).
Chiari Syringomyelia Foundation Proceedings, 118-122.

Danielle Steilen, Ross Hauser, Barbara Woldin, Sarah Sawyer
Chronic neck pain: making the connection between capsular ligament laxity and cervical
The Open Orthopaedics Journal. 2014 Oct 1;8:326-45.


Chiari Syringomyelia Foundation & Bobby Jones Foundation. (2013).
Review of the 2013 research colloquium & consensus on craniocervical instability.
Retrieved Nov 29, 2020.

Gerwyn Morris, Michael Maes
Myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome and encephalomyelitis
disseminata/multiple sclerosis show remarkable levels of similarity in phenomenology and
neuroimmune characteristics.
BMC Medicine. 2013 Sep 17;11:205

Gwendolen Jull, Justin Kenardy, Joan Hendrikz, Milton Cohen, Michele Sterling
Management of acute whiplash: a randomized controlled trial of multidisciplinary stratified
Pain. 2013 Sep;154(9):1798-1806.

Andrew M Stone, Bill Vicenzino, Edwin C W Lim, Michele Sterling
Measures of central hyperexcitability in chronic whiplash associated disorder–a systematic
review and meta-analysis.
Manual Therapy. 2013 Apr;18(2):111-7.

J Van Oosterwijck, J Nijs, M Meeus, L Paul
Evidence for central sensitization in chronic whiplash: a systematic literature review.
European Journal of Pain (London, England). 2013 Mar;17(3):299-312.

Liesbeth Daenen, Jo Nijs, Nathalie Roussel, Kristien Wouters, Michel Van Loo, Patrick Cras
Dysfunctional pain inhibition in patients with chronic whiplash-associated disorders: an experimental study.
Clinical Rheumatology. 2013 Jan;32(1):23-31.


Fusion in patients with occipito-atlanto-axial joint instability: management strategy and results.
Nishikawa, M., Milhorat, T., Bolognese, P., Kula, R. W., Masamura, S., & Ikuno, H. (2012).
Spinal Surgery, 26(2), 211-220.

Jason B Fice, Duane S Cronin
Investigation of whiplash injuries in the upper cervical spine using a detailed neck model.
Journal of Biomechanics. 2012 Apr 5;45(6):1098-102.


Elevated [11C]-D-deprenyl uptake in chronic Whiplash Associated Disorder suggests persistent musculoskeletal inflammation.
Linnman, C., Appel, L., Fredrikson, M., Gordh, T., Söderlund, A., Långström, B., & Engler, H. (2011).
PloS One, 6(4), e19182–.


Cognitive symptoms, cervical range of motion and pain as prognostic factors after whiplash trauma
P. Borenstein, M. Rosenfeld, R. Gunnarsson
Acta Neurologica Scandinavica, September 2010

Nils Vetti, Jostein Kråkenes, Geir E Eide, Jarle Rørvik, Nils E Gilhus, Ansgar Espeland
Are MRI high-signal changes of alar and transverse ligaments in acute whiplash injury related to outcome?
BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders. 2010 Nov 11;11:260.

Functional cervical MRI within the scope of whiplash injuries: presentation of a new motion device for the cervical spine.
Birnbaum, K., Maus, U., & Tacke, J. (2010).
Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy, 32(2), 181–188.

“They Don’t Want Anything to Do with You”: Patient Views of Primary Care Management of Chronic Pain.
Upshur, C., Bacigalupe, G., & Luckmann, R. (2010).
Pain Medicine (Malden, Mass.), 11(12), 1791–1798.

Michael D Freeman, Scott Rosa, David Harshfield, Francis Smith, Robert Bennett,
Christopher J Centeno, Ezriel Kornel, Ake Nystrom, Dan Heffez, Sean S Kohles
A case-control study of cerebellar tonsillar ectopia (Chiari) and head/neck trauma (whiplash).
Brain Injury. 2010;24(7-8):988-94.


Occipito-atlanto-axial hypermobility: clinical features and dynamic analysis of cranial settling and posterior gliding of occipital condyle: Part 1 Findings in Patients with Hereditary Disorders of Connective Tissue and Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome.
Nishikawa, M., Milhorat, T., Bolognese, P., McDonnell, N.B., & Francomano, C. (2009a).
Spinal Surgery, 23(2), 168-175.

Occipito-atlanto-axial hypermobility: clinical features and dynamic analysis of cranial settling and posterior gliding of occipital condyle. Part 2 Findings in patients with post-traumatic condition.
Nishikawa, M., Milhorat, T., Bolognese, P., McDonnell, N.B., & Francomano, C. (2009b).
Spinal Surgery 23(2), 176-182.

Gunter P Siegmund, Beth A Winkelstein, Paul C Ivancic, Mats Y Svensson, Anita Vasavada
The anatomy and biomechanics of acute and chronic whiplash injury.
Traffic Injury Prevention. 2009 Apr;10(2):101-12.10(2), 101–112.

Michael D Freeman, Ake Nystrom, Christopher Centeno
Chronic whiplash and central sensitization; an evaluation of the role of a myofascial trigger points in pain modulation.
Journal of Brachial Plexus and Peripheral Nerve Injury. 2009 Apr 23;4:2.


Rikard K Wicksell, Josefin Ahlqvist, Annika Bring, Lennart Melin, Gunnar L Olsson
Can exposure and acceptance strategies improve functioning and life satisfaction in people
with chronic pain and whiplash-associated disorders (WAD)? A randomized controlled trial.
Cognitive Behaviour Therapy. 2008;37(3):169-82.

Assessment of Neck Pain and Its Associated Disorders: Results of the Bone and Joint Decade 2000-2010 Task Force on Neck Pain and Its Associated Disorders.
Nordin, M., Carragee, E., Hogg-Johnson, S., Weiner, S., Hurwitz, E., Peloso, P., Guzman, J., van der Velde, G., Carroll, L., Holm, L., Côté, P., Cassidy, J., & Haldeman, S. (2008).
European Spine Journal, 17(S1), 101–122.


Chronic Whiplash and Whiplash-Associated Disorders: An Evidence-Based Approach.
Schofferman, J., Bogduk, N., & Slosar, P. (2007).
Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons, 15(10), 596–606.

Syndrome of occipitoatlantoaxial hypermobility, cranial settling, and chiari malformation type I in patients with hereditary disorders of connective tissue.
Milhorat, T. H., Bolognese, P. A., Nishikawa, M., McDonnell, N. B., & Francomano, C. A. (2007).
Journal of neurosurgery. Spine, 7(6), 601–609.

Dan S Heffez, Ruth E Ross, Yvonne Shade-Zeldow, Konstantinos Kostas, Mary Morrissey,
Dean A Elias, Alan Shepard
Treatment of cervical myelopathy in patients with the fibromyalgia syndrome: outcomes and
European Spine Journal. 2007 Sep;16(9):1423-33.


Cervical Roots as Origin of Pain in the Neck or Scapular Regions
Tanaka, Yasuhisa MD; Kokubun, Shoichi MD; Sato, Tetsuro MD; Ozawa, Hiroshi MD
Spine: August 1, 2006 – Volume 31 – Issue 17 – p E568-E573


Cervical intervertebral disc injury during simulated frontal impact.
Ito, S., Ivancic, P., Pearson, A., Tominaga, Y., Gimenez, S., Rubin, W., & Panjabi, M. (2005).
European Spine Journal, 14(4), 356–365.


Symptoms and Cognitive Dysfunction in Patients With the Late Whiplash Syndrome.
Haldorsen, T., Waterloo, K., Dahl, A., Mellgren, S., Davidsen, P., & Molin, P. (2003).
Applied Neuropsychology, 10(3), 170–175.


James R. Taylor
BC Medical Journal. June 2002. Vol. 44, No. 5, page(s) 252-256—Article

A descriptive analysis of disorders in patients 17 years following motor vehicle accidents.
Bunketorp, L., Nordholm, L., & Carlsson, J. (2002).
European Spine Journal, 11(3), 227–234.


MR Imaging Findings in Spinal Ligamentous Injury
Philip F. Benedetti¹, Linda M. Fahr², Lawrence R. Kuhns³ and L. Anne Hayman²⁴⁵
AJR, American Journal of Roentgenology, Diagnostic Imaging and Related Sciences, September 2000, Volume 175, Number 3, 2000;175: 661-665.
Pictorial Essay:
Clinical instability of the spine after trauma occurs when the spinal ligaments and bones lose their ability to maintain normal alignment between vertebral segments while they are under a physiologic load. Instability can lead to further injury, pain, or deformity and can require surgical stabilization. MR imaging has been shown to be helpful in the detection of ligamentous injury.


The Olerud Cervical Fixation System; A Study of Safety and Efficacy.
Olerud, C., Lind, B., & Sahlstedt, B. (2010).
Upsala Journal of Medical Sciences, 104(2).


High-dose methylprednisolone prevents extensive sick leave after whiplash injury. A prospective, randomized, double-blind study.
Pettersson, K., & Toolanen, G. (1998).
Spine (Philadelphia, Pa. 1976), 23(9), 984–989.


Disc pathology after whiplash injury. A prospective magnetic resonance imaging and clinical investigation.
Pettersson, K., Hildingsson, C., Toolanen, G., Fagerlund, M., & Björnebrink, J. (1997).
Spine (Philadelphia, Pa. 1976), 22(3), 283–287.


Decreased width of the spinal canal in patients with chronic symptoms after whiplash injury.
Pettersson, K., Kärrholm, J., Toolanen, G., & Hildingsson, C. (1995).
Spine (Philadelphia, Pa. 1976), 20(15), 1664–1667.


Findings and outcome in whiplash-type neck distortions.
H Jónsson Jr 1, K Cesarini, B Sahlstedt, W Rauschning.(1994)
Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 1994 Dec 15;19(24):2733-43.


Surgery for chronic symptoms after whiplash injury: Follow-up of 20 cases.
Algers, G., Pettersson, K., Hildingsson, C., & Toolanen, G. (1993).
Acta Orthopaedica Scandinavica, 64(6), 654–656.


Primary Posterior Fusion C1/2 in Odontoid Fractures Indications, Technique, and Results of Transarticular Screw Fixation
Jeanneret, B.; Magerl, F. (1992)
J Spinal Disord. 1992 Dec;5(4):464-75.


Chronic Posttraumatic Syndrome after Whiplash Injury: A Pilot Study of 22 Patients.
Bring, G., & Westman, G. (1991).
Scandinavian Journal of Primary Health Care, 9(2), 135–141.

Hidden cervical spine injuries in traffic accident victims with skull fractures.
Jónsson, J., Bring, G., Rauschning, W., & Sahlstedt, B. (1991).
Journal of Spinal Disorders, 4(3), 251–267.


Swed Dent J 12:141 – 149 (1988)
Symtoms and signs of mandibular dysfunction in primary fibromyalgia syndrome (PSF) patients
Departments of Anatomy¹ and Clinical Oral Physiology², University of Umeå, Umeå and the Department of Internal Medicine Division of Rheumatology³, University Hospital, Linköping,
Key words: Anamnestic symptoms, Clinical signs, Headache, Primary fibromyalgia syndrome,
Mandibular dysfunction.
”Symptom och tecken på käkfunktions-störning hos individer med primär fibromyalgi”
”På den tiden kallades det ”Primary Fibromyalgia Syndrome.
K-G Henriksson och Ann Bengtsson, två forskare vid Universitetssjukhuset i Linköping var på den tiden mycket engagerade inom forskning om Fibromyalgi.
Vi besökte K-G H och AB i Linköping och undersökte fibromyalgipatienter kliniskt och med frågeformulär.
JA! Vi fann uttalade symptom och tecken på käkfunktionsstörning hos dessa fibromyalgipatienter.
I Tabell 3 finns en sammanställning av symptombilden för sex (6) olika ”syndrom”:
(Obs beteckningarna nedan är enl. den tidens terminologi)
“Primary fibromyalgia syndrome”
“Temporomandibular joint dysfunction syndrome”
”Costens syndrome”
”Oral galvanism”
”Cervical syndrome”
”Meniere`s disease”
Som ses i tabellen är överlappningar tydliga.
Vilken insikt ger oss detta resultat?” [Anteckning av Per-Olof Eriksson, professor emeritus, Klin Oral fysiologi, Umeå universitet, Umeå].